It is also found that combined mediation efforts of both official and unofficial tracks can be more effective than independent track actions. The institute of multitrack diplomacys model of multitrack diplomacy defines track two as peacemaking by conflict resolution professionals and ngos, with a number of other tracks from track three peacemaking through commerce or business through to track nine peacemaking through the media and information having a role. In recognition of the importance of multilateral diplomacy nowadays, a number of universal and regional organisations also receive brief mention. It is also referred to as people to people diplomacy. The following section examines a series of limitations, which significantly impede the ability of track two dialogues to influence regional security thinking and policy in new directions. Track two diplomacy consists of informal dialogues among actors such as academics, religious leaders, retired senior officials, and ngo officials that can bring new ideas and new relationships to the official process of diplomacy. But the fullest description of its meaning appears in my chapter of the state departments book on the subject, conflict resolution. The effectiveness of tracks of diplomacy strategies in third. The book is one of its kind in its ability to bridge disciplinary barriers and differing views about the utility of political theory, and its willingness to challenge conventional methods of social science research. Rethinking track two diplomacy peace palace library. It looks at the web of interconnected activities, individuals, institutions, and communities that operate together for a common goal. As such, this is a developmental concept of track 1. An institute for citizen diplomacy brings influencers from countries in conflict together in immersive conferences and workshops to address problems and opportunities that shift perceptions and lead to a more just, peaceful and enriched world. Track two diplomacy in theory and practice peter jones.
The relationship between track one and track two diplomacy aws. The concept and practice of track two diplomacy as a conflict resolution and conflict prevention approach or. What is the meaning and usefulness of track 1, track 2, track. Diplomacy is the main instrument of foreign policy, which consists of the broader goals and strategies that guide a states interactions with the rest of the world. Download a pdf of scientists, engineers, and tracktwo diplomacy by the national research council for free.
Track two diplomacy in the middle east and south asia rand. Feb 23, 2016 track two diplomacy consists of informal dialogues among actors such as academics, religious leaders, retired senior officials, and ngo officials that can bring new ideas and new relationships to. Different levels of diplomacy track 1, track 2, track 3. Official discussions typically involving highlevel political and military leaders and focusing on ceasefires, peace talks, and treaties and other agreements. International treaties, agreements, alliances, and other manifestations of foreign policy are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians.
Governments once viewed track ii as a kind of feelgood exercise at best, and at worst as a genuine threat freelance diplomacy, after all, can damage. I we adopt this version of a track ii definition because of its emphasis on track ii diplomacy as activities which may be designed to influence either official policymaking or the socialization of public opinion. Track iii diplomacy synonyms, track iii diplomacy pronunciation, track iii diplomacy translation, english dictionary definition of track iii diplomacy. In track three diplomacy, unofficial third parties work with people from all walks of life and sectors of their society to find ways to promote peace in settings of violent conflict. Then the paper defines track one and a half diplomacy, gives its strengths and weaknesses, and finally presents a model that shows the position of the three levels of diplomacy and how they can complement each other. Track two diplomacy referred to conflict resolution efforts by professional nongovernmental conflict resolution practitioners and theorists. Regardless of the multiplicity of these levels of diplomacy, there are still a lot of other conflict resolution activities that have not been clearly defined. But such assumptions about the power of track two diplomacy have rarely been systematically assessed through empirical analysis. Feb 26, 2018 india, pak agreed to revive track 2 diplomacy.
Introduction despite the widespread image of diplomacy as a subfield of international relations on which many works have been written, and with very little left to survey, contemporary. But such assumptions about the power of track two diplomacy. Track one diplomacy was what diplomats didformal negotiations between nations conducted by professional diplomats. In multi track diplomacy, all sectors of society are important and need to be involved, supported, listened to, and trained in a shared language of dialogue, conflict resolution, and. Unofficial interventions at the grass roots track three diplomacy.
Multitrack diplomacy law and legal definition uslegal, inc. The most common forms of diplomacy in conflict resolution are track one, track two and multi track diplomacy. Track one diplomacy, that is, efforts by official actors, tends to be the most effective form of intervention as greater leverage and more resources invested can make track intervention more effective. This article provides a snapshot of diplomatic thinking about track iinonofficial diplomacy, from interviews with distinguished american diplomats. Us diplomat joseph montville coined the term track two diplomacy in 1981. Later, louise diamond coined the phrase multi track diplomacy, recognizing that to. Therefore, it can be states that while track one refers to all official, governmental diplomacy, track two describes all other activities that occur outside official government. Diplomacy, track one diplomacy, ideal diplomat, career diplomacy. Starting with defining the concept, the study will elaborate on the.
This book, a unique collaboration of israeli and palestinian authors, traces the history of these unofficial meetings, focusing on. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to present track one and a half diplomacy as operationalized at the carter center in order to enhance the ongoing struggle for clarity of its definition. Track ii diplomacy or backchannel diplomacy is the practice of nongovernmental, informal. Trackii talks in the middle eastunofficial discussions among israeli and arab scholars, journalists, and former government and military officialshave been going on since soon after the 1967 six day war and have often paved the way for official negotiations. Multi track diplomacy the term multi track diplomacy is based on the original distinction made by joseph montville in 1981 between official, governmental actions to resolve conflicts track one and unofficial efforts by nongovernmental professionals to resolve conflicts within and between states track two. Oct 27, 2017 the term track two diplomacy first appeared in print in a foreign policy column that i coauthored with psychiatrist william d. In the conflict resolution realm, track ii peacemaking or diplomacy has become. Multi track diplomacy law and legal definition multi track diplomacy refers to an abstract way to view the process of international peacemaking as a living system. Snapshot also known as track ii, second track, tracktwo 1. The nature of track three diplomacy and its influence on. It is a diplomacy at the grassroots level, which creates better understanding of the other, promotes tolerance and feeds a culture of peace among citizens. They are not disputants, but rather people who try to work with the disputants to resolve the conflict or transform it to make it less destructive.
Track ii diplomacy or backchannel diplomacy is the practice of non governmental, informal. Most important, track two diplomacy is intended to provide a bridge or complement official track one negotiations. Huge changes are taking place in international diplomacy which have created an opening and a certain appreciation for the contributions that can be made by private citizens to international peacemaking. Pdf this work provides a descriptive discussion for one of the new conflict resolution.
Joseph montville, who coined the term track two in. More recently, however, scholars have delineated several levels of diplomacy. Official discussions typically involving highlevel political and military leaders and focusing on cease. Likewise, track one diplomacy can also include significant negative incentives such as sanctions, expulsion from international organizations, and even military force. Assessing track 2 diplomacy in the asiapacific region.
Peopletopeople diplomacy undertaken by individuals and private groups. Application of multi track diplomacy for peace building. The book then proceeds to present the initiatives culminating documents, which outline in detail its proposed special regime governance model. Pdf application of multi track diplomacy for peace building. Discussion at the retreat also referred to two different categories of longterm outcomes that were anticipated for track 1. Through an examination of regional security track two e.
The effectiveness of tracks of diplomacy strategies in. The brainchild of a handful of academics, freethinking state department bureaucrats, and public intellectuals in the 1970s, track ii diplomacy. Mar 25, 2012 the broadest definition of track two diplomacy refers to interactions among individual or groups that take place outside an official negotiation process. Track one and a half diplomacy and the complementarity of tracks pdf. The term track two was coined by joseph montville, who distinguished traditional diplomatic activities track one diplomacy from unofficial, informal interaction between members of adversarial groups or nations with the goals of developing strategies, influencing public opinions and organizing human and material resources in ways that might. Scientific and cultural exchanges are examples of track two diplomacy. The abc of diplomacy explains some of the most important and frequently used terms and concepts of diplomacy without claiming to provide a comprehensive glossary of terms on the subject.
Evaluating the contributions of tracktwo diplomacy to. It would not be further from truth if we say that the aam aadmi of. The institute of multi track diplomacy s model of multi track diplomacy defines track two as peacemaking by conflict resolution professionals and ngos, with a number of other tracks from track three peacemaking through commerce or business through to track nine peacemaking through the media and information having a role. Traditionally, the term diplomacy referred to interaction between nationstates. The first indicates a progressive development that moves first from the track 2 level, then through track 1. Diplo is a nonprofit foundation established by the governments of malta and switzerland. The future of track two diplomacy in a world where traditional interstate diplomacy often misses critical dynamics of global affairs, such as the influences of religion and culture, there are increasing calls to buttress, or bypass altogether, traditional diplomacy in favor of societycentered track two diplomacy. Track two diplomacy and jerusalem includes a series of studies that place joci within its historical setting and explain the theoretical context of track two diplomacy. This paper presents track three diplomacy which has been overlooked by most leaders in the world.
The meeting establishes the blueprint for track ii diplomacy, from the cast of characters a mix of academics and exofficials to its agenda. The relationship between track one and track two diplomacy. In contrast to track two diplomacy, track one diplomacy may include substantial positive incentives carrots such as humanitarian aid, weapons sales, and trade relations. Track iii diplomacy definition of track iii diplomacy by. Sadly, those involved in official diplomacy often have little understanding of and appreciation for the complex and nuanced role that track two can play, or for its. In short, track two diplomacy is a highly accessible book, full of insights, and useful for academics, practitioners and officials alike. Evaluating the contributions of track two diplomacy to conflict termination in south africa, 198490 daniel lieberfeld department of government and legal studies, bowdoin college this article evaluates the political impact of three nonofficial, track two initiatives aimed at resolving the conflict in south africa. The term intermediary refers to people who become involved in the middle of a conflict. Track two diplomacy in theory and practice by peter jones. Multi track diplomacy is a conceptual way to view the process of international peacemaking as a living system. Track 2 diplomacy powerpoint presentation diplomacy. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development. Track ii diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which nonofficials academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, and social activists engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidencebuilding.1051 1258 717 641 796 825 1024 1305 1267 48 129 536 783 246 378 439 229 1302 879 1334 83 1263 398 1326 250 692 1398 277 986 11 580 1032 63